Dermatitis associated with microfilariae (Filarioidea) in 10 dogs
Hargis A, Lewis TP, Duclos D, Loeffler D, Rausch
Veterinary Dermatology.1999 Jun10( 2): 95-107
Dermatitis associated with microfilariae of a nematode of the superfamily Filarioidea was diagnosed in 10 dogs from the western United States. Clinically, lesions were single or multiple papules and plaques with alopecia, scarring, erythema, ulceration, or crusting. Eight dogs had lesional pruritus. Microscopically, there was perivascular, periglandular, to interstitial inflammation, with many eosinophils and/or plasma cells, and scarring affecting the dermis and subcutis. Microgranulomas containing microfilaria were seen in six dogs. Microfilariae were noted in microgranulomas or free in the dermis or subcutis, but not in vessels. In one case, an adult female nematode emerged from a biopsy sample that was placed in physiologic saline. Study of this nematode revealed that it was a filarioid of the family Onchocercidae; it was identified as Acanthocheilonema sp. (syn: Dipetalonema). Antigen tests of five dogs were negative for Dirofilaria immitis. The Knott tests and/or filter tests of nine dogs were negative for microfilariae. An indirect fluorescence antibody test of one dog was also negative for D. immitis. One dog was not evaluated for microfilariae.